Diet in Cardio vascular Disease

Cardiovascular diseases(CVD)is a class of diseases that involves the heart or blood      vessels. cardiovascular diseases includes coronary artery diseases(CAD)such as angina and myocardial infarction. other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congestion heart disease, alular heart diseases ,cordites, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery diseases,  diseases and venous thrombosis.

TYPES

       There are many cardiovascular diseases involving the blood vessels. They are known as vascular diseases.

  • Coronary artery disease(also known as coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease)
  • Peripheral arterial disease-disease of blood vessels that supply blood to the arms and legs
  • Cerebrovascular disease-disease of blood vessels that supply blood to the brain renal artery stenos is
  • Renal artery stenos is
  • Aortic aneurysm

There are also many cardiovascular diseases that involve the heart.

  • Cardiomyopathy –diseases of cardiac muscle
  • Hypertensive heart disease-diseases of the heart secondary to high blood pressure or hypertension
  • Heart failure-a clinical syndrome caused by the inability of the heart to supply sufficient blood to the tissues to meet their metabolic requirements
  • Pulmonary heart disease-a failure at the right side of the heart with respiratory involvement
  • Cardiac dysrhythmias-abnormalities of heart rhythm
  • Inflammatory heart disease
  • Endocarditic-inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the enocardium. The structure s most commonly involved are the heart valves.
  • Inflammatory cardiomegaly
  • Myocarditis-inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart.
  • Alular heart diseases
  • Congenital heart disease-heart structure malformations existing at birth
  • Rheumatic heart disease-heart muscles and valves damage due to rheumatic fever cause by streptococcus progenies a group A streptococcal infection.

RISK FACTORS:

               There are many risk factors for heart diseases: age, gender, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity, genetic predisposition and family history of cardiovascular disease, raised blood pressure(hypertension), raised blood sugar(diabetes mellitus), raised blood cholesterol(hyperlipidemia), psychosocial factors, poverty and low educational status and air pollution. while the individual contribution of each risk factor varies between different communities or ethnic groups the overall contribution of these risk factors very consistent. some of these risk factors, such as age, gender or family history/genetic predispositions are immutable; however many important cardiovascular risk factors are modified by lifestyle change, social change, drug treatment(for example prevention of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes).people with obesity are at increased risk of atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries.

Genetic factors influence the development of cardiovascular disease in men who are less than 55 years old an in women who are less than 65 years old. Cardiovascular disease in a person’s parents increases their risk by 3 fold. Multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease in genetic association studies, but usually their individual influence is small, and genetic contributions to cardiovascular disease are poorly understood

Age

Age is by far the most important risk factor in developing cardiovascular or heart diseases, with approximately a tripling of risk with each decades of life. coronary fatty streaks can begin to form in adolescence. It is estimated that 82 percent of people who die of coronary heart disease are 65 an older. At the same time, the risk of stroke doubles every decade after age 55.

Multiple explanations have been proposed to explain why age increases the risk of cardiovascular/heart diseases. one of them is related to serum cholesterol level. In most populations, the serum total cholesterol level. In most populations, the serum total cholesterol level increases as age increases. In men, this increase level of around age 45 to 50 years. In women, the increase continues sharply until age 60 to 65 years.

Aging is also associated with changes in the mechanical and structural properties of the vascular wall, which leads to the loss of arterial elasticity and reduced arterial compliance and may subsequently lead to coronary artery disease.

SEX

Men are at greater risk of heart disease than pre-menopausal women.once past menopause, it has been argued that a women’s risk is similar to a man’s although more recent data from the WHO an UN disputes, she is more likely to develop heart disease than a male with diabetes.

Coronary heart disease are 2 to 5 times more common among middle aged men than women in a study done by the World Health Organisation, sex contributes to approximately 40% of the variations In sex ratios of coronary heart disease mortality. another study reports similar results finding that gender differences explain nearly half the risk associated with cardiovascular diseases one of the propose explanations for gender differences in cardiovascular diseases is hormonal difference. Among women, estrogens is the predominant sex hormone. Estrogens may have effective effects on glucose metabolism and haemostatic system, and may have direct effect in improving endothelial cell function. The production of estrogens  decreases   after menopause, and this may change the female lipid metabolism toward a more antherogenic form by decreasing the HDL cholesterol level while increasing LDL an total cholesterol levels.

Among men, and women,   there are notable differences in body weight, height, body fat distribution, heart rate, stroke volume, an arterial compliance. In the very elderly, age-related large artery plasticity and stiffness is more pronounced among women than men. This may be caused by the women’s smaller body size and arterial which are independent of menopause.

Tobacco:

             Cigarettes are the major form of smocked tobacco. Risks to health from tobacco use result not only from direct consumption of tobacco, but also from exposure to second-hand smoke. Approximately 10% of cardiovascular disease is attributed to smoking; however, people who quit smoking by age 30% have almost as low a risk of death as never smockers.

PHYSICAL INACTIVTY

            Insufficient physical activity is currently the fourth leading risk factor for morality worldwide. The risk of ischemic heart diseases and diabetes mellitus is reduced by almost a third in adults who participate in 150 minutes of moderate physical activity each weak. In addition, physical activity assists weight loss and improves  blood glucose control, blood pressure, lipid profile and insulin sensitivity. These effects may, at least in part, explain its cardiovascular benefits.

Diet

            High dietary  intakes of  Saturated fat, trans-fats and salt, and low intake of fruits, vegetables and fish linked to cardiovascular risk, although whether all these associations are a cause is disputed. The amount of dietary salt consumed is also an important determinant of blood-pressure levels and overall cardiovascular risk. Frequent consumption of high-energy foods, such as processed foods that are high in fats and sugars, promotes obesity and may increases cardiovascular risk. A Cochrane review found that replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat(plant based oils) reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Cutting down on saturated fat reduced risk of cardiovascular disease by 17% including heart disease and stroke. High trans-fat intake has adverse effects on blood lipids and circulating inflammatory markers, and elimination of trans-fat from diets has been widely advocated. There  is evidence that higher consumptions of sugar is associated with higher blood pressure and unfavourable blood lipids, and sugar intake also increases the risk of diabetes mellitus. High consumption of processed meats is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases,  possibility in part due to increase dietary salt intake.

The relationship between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease is complex, and may depend   on the amount of alcohol consumed.  There is a direct relationship between high levels of alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease. Drinking at low  levels without episodes of heavy drinking may be associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Overall alcohol consumption at the population level is associated with multiple health risk that exceed any potential benefits.